Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Koto, also called kin, long Japanese board zither having 13 silk strings and movable bridges. Of course, such an arrangement is unstable, and the bridge would have a tendency to fall down. Son œuvre Haru no umi (La mer du printemps, pour koto et shakuhachi) est la plus connue des œuvres jouées au koto. Thus the top part is called the "dragon's shell" (竜甲 ryūkō), while the bottom part is called the "dragon's stomach" (竜腹 ryūfuku). The influence of Western pop music has made the koto less prominent in Japan, although it is still developing as an instrument. Japanese developments in bridgeless zithers include the one-stringed koto (ichigenkin) and two-stringed koto (nigenkin or yakumo goto). Her compositions blend the timbres of world music with her native Japanese culture. Miyagi is largely regarded as being responsible for keeping the koto alive when traditional Japanese arts were being forgotten and replaced by Westernization. The Koto: A Traditional Instrument in Contemporary Japan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Koto_(instrument)&oldid=984939200, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Mongolian-language text, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz instrument identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Kumiuta and Danmono Traditions of Japanese Koto Music, by Willem Adriaansz (University of California Press, 1973), This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 00:28. These two have relatively stayed the same with the exception of material innovations like plastic and the type of strings. When the koto was first imported to Japan, the native word koto was a generic term for any and all Japanese stringed instruments. Women could not play the instrument in the professional world nor teach it. 17-string koto … Mar 6, 2019 - Explore Eva Catherine's board "Koto instrument" on Pinterest. Obata also produced the first-ever English language koto instructional DVD, titled "You Can Play Koto." The straight lined pattern is easier to manufacture, so the swirl raises the cost of production therefore is reserved for decorative and elegant models.[2]. According to Japanese literature, the koto was used as imagery and other extra music significance. These two have relatively stayed the same with the exception of material innovations like plastic and the type of strings. Kiri is dried and cut into precise measurements. The ancestor of the koto was the Chinese guzheng. Koto may or may not be adorned. Corrections? The koto (箏) is a Japanese plucked half-tube zither and the national instrument of Japan. It is derived from the Chinese zheng and se, and similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum and ajaeng, the Vietnamese đàn tranh, the Sundanese kacapi and the Kazakhstan jetigen. Over time the definition of koto could not describe the wide variety of these stringed instruments and so the meanings changed. One can alter the pitch of a string by manipulating or moving the bridge. Adornments include inlays of ivory and ebony, tortoise shell, metal figures, etc. A smaller influence in the evolution of the koto is found in the inspiration of a woman named Keiko Nosaka. A smaller influence in the evolution of the koto is found in the inspiration of a woman named Keiko Nosaka. One can tighten by pulling the string from behind, or sitting at the side of the koto, although the latter is much harder and requires much arm strength. Ex-Genesis guitarist Steve Hackett used a koto on the instrumental song "The Red Flower of Tachai Blooms Everywhere" from the album Spectral Mornings (1979), and Genesis keyboardist Tony Banks sampled a koto using an Emulator keyboard for the band's song "Mama". Il existait aussi le hachijūgen (80 cordes) créé par Miyagi, mais il n'a jamais existé qu'un seul exemplaire de cet instrument et personne n'en joue aujourd'hui. Larner had previously played koto with John Fahey, Jim O'Rourke, and members of indie rock groups including Camper Van Beethoven, Deerhoof, Jackie O Motherfucker, and Mr. Bungle. Paul Gilbert, a popular guitar virtuoso, recorded his wife Emi playing the koto on his song "Koto Girl" from the album Alligator Farm (2000). The 17-string bass koto (jūshichi-gen) has become more prominent over the years since its development by Michio Miyagi. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. The two main koto varieties still used today are the gakuso and zokuso. There are also 20-, 21-, and 25-string koto. Au Japon, pendant plus de 2 siècles, seuls les aveugles avaient le droit de devenir joueurs professionnels de koto. Grove Art Online. She performed on the Grammy-winning album Miho: Journey to the Mountain (2010) by the Paul Winter Consort, garnering additional exposure to Western audiences for the instrument. Adornments include inlays of ivory and ebony, tortoise shell, metal figures, etc. Some literary and historical records indicate that solo pieces for koto existed centuries before sōkyoku, the music of the solo koto genre, was established. There are also 20-, 21-, and 25-string koto. [3][4][5][6] It was first introduced to Japan from China in the 7th and 8th century. The Japanese koto belongs to the Asian zither family that also comprises the Chinese zheng (ancestral to the other zithers in the family), the Korean gayageum, and the Vietnamese dan tranh. He wrote over 300 new works for the instrument before his death in a train accident at the age of 62. There are, of course, various sorts of patch materials sold to fill the holes which cause the legs of a bridge to rest on an unstable area. June Kuramoto of the jazz fusion group Hiroshima was one of the first koto performers to popularize the koto in a non-traditional fusion style. Rock band Kagrra, are well known for using traditional Japanese musical instruments in many of their songs, an example being "Utakata" (うたかた), a song in which the koto has a prominent place. The tagenso is the newest addition to the koto family, surfacing in the 19th century, it was purposefully created to access a wider range of sound and advance style of play; these were made with 17, 21, and 31 strings.[8]. Aujourd'hui, on trouve également des koto avec davantage de cordes : En japonais, le mot gen signifie corde, et les noms des instruments indiquent le nombre de cordes qu'on trouvera sur chaque type de koto. The person who plays…. It was a popular instrument among the wealthy; the instrument koto was considered a romantic one. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Yukiko Matsuyama leads her KotoYuki band in Los Angeles. Strings can be tightened by a special machine, but often are tightened by hand, and then tied. Oxford: Oxford Univ., 2005. Koto strings are generally plucked using three fingerpicks, worn on the first three fingers of the right hand. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 2 juin 2020 à 12:31. Another Sawai disciple, Masayo Ishigure, holds down a school in New York City. The wood is also cut into two patterns, itame (also called mokume), which has a swirling pattern, or straight lined masame. June Kuramoto of the jazz fusion group Hiroshima was one of the first koto performers to popularize the koto in a non-traditional fusion style. He wrote over 300 new works for the instrument before his death in a train accident at the age of 62. [8] Every piece of the instrument comes with cultural significance, especially since the koto is the national instrument. However, 琴 usually refers to another instrument, the kin (琴の琴; kin no koto). Koto, also called kin, long Japanese board zither having 13 silk strings and movable bridges. Other solo performers outside Japan include award-winning recording artist Elizabeth Falconer, who also studied for a decade at the Sawai Koto School in Tokyo, and Linda Kako Caplan, Canadian daishihan (grandmaster) and member of Fukuoka's Chikushi Koto School for over two decades. The strings are made from a variety of materials. The commoners did all the innovations that made the Koto not only a sturdy instrument, but more sonically adept. The straight lined pattern is easier to manufacture, so the swirl raises the cost of production therefore is reserved for decorative and elegant models.[2]. [7] The first known version had five strings, which eventually increased to seven strings. He performed abroad and by 1928 his piece for koto and shakuhachi, Haru no Umi (Spring Sea) had been transcribed for numerous instruments. Variations of the instrument were created, and eventually a few of them would become the standard variations for modern day koto. Parmi les musiciens représentatifs du koto, on trouve d'abord Yatsuhashi Kengyō (1614-1685) ; puis Michio Miyagi (1894-1956, prononcé Miyagui) et Fumiko Yonekawa, née en 1895 et qui avait, en 1983, 185 000 heures de pratique. Strings can be tightened by a special machine, but often are tightened by hand, and then tied. Oxford Art Online. In older pop and rock music, David Bowie used a koto in the instrumental piece "Moss Garden" on his album "Heroes" (1977). A koto played by Hazel Payne is featured in A Taste of Honey's 1981 English cover of the Japanese song "Sukiyaki". In March 2010 the koto received widespread international attention when a video linked by the Grammy Award-winning hard rock band Tool on its website became a viral hit. Schools for the bourgeois were established in the 16th century. According to Japanese literature, the koto was used as imagery and other extra music significance. Le koto (琴 en japonais) est un instrument de musique à cordes pincées utilisé en musique japonaise traditionnelle, notamment dans le kabuki et le bunraku. The koto of the chikuso was made for the Tsukushigato tradition and only for blind men. 箏, in certain contexts, is also read as sō (箏の琴; sō no koto). The multi-instrumentalist, founder, and former guitarist of The Rolling Stones Brian Jones played the koto in the song "Take It Or Leave It" on the album Aftermath (1966). The Japanese koto belongs to the Asian zither family that also comprises the Chinese zheng (ancestral to the other zithers in the family), the Korean gayageum, and the Vietnamese dan tranh. It is derived from the Chinese zheng, and similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum, the Vietnamese đàn tranh, the Sundanese kacapi and the Kazakhstan jetigen. également le 'yakumogoto' (八雲琴、やくもごと en japonais), à deux cordes. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary, Trésor de la langue française informatisé, https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=koto&oldid=61104743, Finnish terms inherited from Proto-Finnic, Madurese terms inherited from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese terms derived from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese terms inherited from Proto-Austronesian, Madurese terms derived from Proto-Austronesian, Sranan Tongo terms with IPA pronunciation, Requests for translations into Vietnamese, Requests for etymologies in Votic entries, Requests for inflections in Votic entries, Requests for inflections in Votic noun entries, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He also invented the popular 17 string bass koto, created new playing techniques, advanced traditional forms, and most importantly increased the koto's popularity. There are, of course, various sorts of patch materials sold to fill the holes which cause the legs of a bridge to rest on an unstable area. The modern koto originates from the gakusō used in Japanese court music. Le KOTO, une longue cithare à cordes pincées, joue un rôle prépondérant dans la musique japonaise. Keiko Nosaka (a musician who won Grand Prize in Music from the Japanese Ministry of Culture in 2002), felt confined by playing a koto with just 13 strings, so she created new versions of the instrument with 20 or more strings.[9]. The makura ito, the silk thread used in the instrument, is a pivotal part of its construction. The body of a traditional koto is made of a wood called kiri. The body of the instrument is made of paulownia wood and is about 190 cm (74 inches) long. Only 1 left! Wade, Bonnie C. Music in Japan: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. As of the beginning of the 19th century, an ivory called makura zuno became the standard for the koto.[14]. De nos jours, les maîtres de koto à l'extérieur du Japon ne sont pas nombreux. The wood is also cut into two patterns, itame (also called mokume), which has a swirling pattern, or straight lined masame. He was a gifted blind musician from Kyoto who changed the limited selection of six songs to a brand new style of koto music which he called kumi uta. The bridges (Ji) used to be made of ivory, but nowadays are typically made of plastic, and occasionally made of wood. hello kitty sweet collection 1pcs mini 5ml fragrance perfume eau de toilette by sanrio for koto parfum. The makura ito was used in paper so the fine silk was in abundance in Japan. The makura ito was used in paper so the fine silk was in abundance in Japan. Obata is one of the few koto performers to perform koto concertos with United States orchestras, having done so on multiple occasions, including with Orchestra Nova for San Diego's KPBS in 2010.[15]. This feature was not seen on the speculated nobility style instruments because they used a more tension of theirs and valued the relict nature of their instruments. The left hand, in traditions after the 16th century, may alter the pitch or sound of each string by pressing or manipulating the strings to the left of the bridges. It is derived from the Chinese zheng and se, and similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum and ajaeng, the Vietnamese đàn tranh, the Sundanese kacapi and the Kazakhstan jetigen. The koto is played by plucking the strings with the thumb and first two fingers of the right hand, which are fitted with ivory plectrums called tsume. With the relief of the rule, women started to playing the koto, but not the chikuso because it was designed for the blind which led to a decline in use; other koto proved more useful. Détail de l’autre extrémité, présentant des dragons de métal sculpté. See more ideas about Japanese traditional, Japan, Japanese. Sawai's widow Kazue Sawai, who as a child was Miyagi's favored disciple, has been the largest driving force behind the internationalization and modernization of the koto. Comment ajouter mes sources ? This feature was not seen on the speculated nobility style instruments because they used a more tension of theirs and valued the relict nature of their instruments. See more ideas about Koto instrument, Instruments, Musical instruments. This listing if for two japanese language yaoi/bl manga: ‘warri koto shitai’ by sakurai mei, and ‘hoshigarimasen. The size of the soundboard on a standard modern koto has remained approximately 182 centimeters. The strings are tied with a half hitch to a roll of paper or cardboard, about the size of a cigarette butt, strung through the holes at the head of the koto, threaded through the holes at the back, tightened, and tied with a special knot. When the koto was first imported to Japan, the native word koto was a generic term for any and all Japanese stringed instruments. Yatsuhashi changed the tsukushi goto tunings, which were based on gagaku ways of tuning; and with this change, a new style of koto was born. "Japan". Pour l’article ayant un titre homophone, voir, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Koto&oldid=171583227, Article manquant de références depuis septembre 2010, Article manquant de références/Liste complète, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Page pointant vers des bases relatives à la musique, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. The members of the band Rin' are popular jūshichi-gen players in the modern music scene. 13-stringed koto performance of the song "Sakura Sakura", "sian Instrument Collection in the Beckwith Music Library", "Contemporary Music for Japanese Instruments: Sawai Koto Ensemble", "Reiko Obata Performs with Orchestra Nova on KPBS", "Sukiyaki by A Taste of Honey on Soul Train", "I'll Try Something New by A Taste of Honey on Soul Train". Reiko Obata has also made the koto accessible to Western music readers with the publication of two books for solo koto using Western notation. The commoners did all the innovations that made the Koto not only a sturdy instrument, but more sonically adept. The current generation of koto players, such as American performers Reiko Obata and Miya Masaoka, Japanese master Kazue Sawai, and Michiyo Yagi, are finding places for the koto in today's jazz, experimental music and even pop music. July 30, 2008. The most common type uses 13 strings strung over movable bridges used for tuning, different pieces possibly requiring different tuning. Kiri is also important to Japan because it is the Imperial family crest for the Empress. 17-string koto are also a common occurrence and act as bass in ensembles. and "The Message". Winston Tong, the singer of Tuxedomoon, uses it on his 15-minute song "The Hunger" from his debut solo album Theoretically Chinese (1985). This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 13:11. Obata is one of the few koto performers to perform koto concertos with United States orchestras, having done so on multiple occasions, including with Orchestra Nova for San Diego's KPBS in 2010.[15]. Koto are about 180 centimetres (71 in) length, and made from kiri wood (Paulownia tomentosa). However, 琴 usually refers to another instrument, the kin (琴の琴; kin no koto). July 30, 2008. When the performer is kneeling or seated on the floor, the koto is held off the floor by two legs or a bridge-storage box; in most modern concerts, the instrument is placed on a stand so the performer can sit on a chair. The size of the soundboard on a standard modern koto has remained approximately 182 centimeters. For about one hundred and fifty years after the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese shirked their isolationist ideals and began to openly embrace American and European influences; which is most likely why the koto has taken on many different variations of itself. Koto may or may not be adorned. Updates? For about one hundred and fifty years after the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese shirked their isolationist ideals and began to openly embrace American and European influences; which is most likely why the koto has taken on many different variations of itself. Kogo no Tsubone, the emperor's mistress, playing a koto; Japanese woodblock print. The character for koto is 箏, although 琴 is often used. [8] Every piece of the instrument comes with cultural significance, especially since the koto is the national instrument. They cost more and are not as durable, but claimed to be more musical. Winston Tong, the singer of Tuxedomoon, uses it on his 15-minute song "The Hunger" from his debut solo album Theoretically Chinese (1985). 箏, in certain contexts, is also read as sō (箏の琴; sō no koto). The body of a traditional koto is made of a wood called kiri. Le koto (琴 en japonais) est un instrument de musique à cordes pincées utilisé en musique japonaise traditionnelle, notamment dans le kabuki et le bunraku.Originaire de Chine (), il fut introduit au Japon entre le VII e et le VIII e siècle et était joué principalement à la Cour impériale ; … Works are being written for 20- and 25-string koto and 17-string bass koto. The tagenso is the newest addition to the koto family, surfacing in the 19th century, it was purposefully created to access a wider range of sound and advance style of play; these were made with 17, 21, and 31 strings.[8]. The two main koto varieties still used today are the gakuso and zokuso. Other solo performers outside Japan include award-winning recording artist Elizabeth Falconer, who also studied for a decade at the Sawai Koto School in Tokyo, and Linda Kako Caplan, Canadian daishihan (grandmaster) and member of Fukuoka's Chikushi Koto School for over two decades. Around the 1920s, Goro Morita created a new version of the two-stringed koto; on this koto, one would push down buttons above the metal strings like the western autoharp. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Another Sawai disciple, Masayo Ishigure, holds down a school in New York City. [17] A synthesized koto also appears in their cover of the song "I'll Try Something New".[18]. The koto: a traditional instrument in contemporary. Koto portable Japanese stringed musical instrument acoustic harp 13strings zen. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. [12] For some very low notes, there are small bridges made, as well as specialty bridges with three different heights, depending on the need of the tuning. At the beginning of the Meiji Period (1868–1912), western music was introduced to Japan. Le koto (琴 en japonais) est un instrument de musique à cordes pincées utilisé en musique japonaise traditionnelle, notamment dans le kabuki et le bunraku. Ex-Genesis guitarist Steve Hackett used a koto on the instrumental song "The Red Flower of Tachai Blooms Everywhere" from the album Spectral Mornings (1979), and Genesis keyboardist Tony Banks sampled a koto using an Emulator keyboard for the band's song "Mama". The rock band Queen used a (toy) koto in "The Prophet's Song" on their 1975 album A Night at the Opera. The most common type uses 13 strings strung over movable bridges used for tuning, different pieces possibly requiring different tuning. or Best Offer. One end of the koto, noticeable because of the removable colorful fabricshell, is known as the "dragon's head" (竜頭 ryūzu), consisting of parts such as the "dragon's horns" (竜角 ryūkaku - the saddle of the bridge or makurazuno 枕角), "dragon's tongue" (竜舌 ryūzetsu), "dragon's eyes" (竜眼 ryūgan - the holes for the strings) and "dragon's forehead" (竜額 ryūgaku - the space above the makurazuno). [16] Asia (band) used a koto on the middle-eight section of "Heat of the Moment" on their eponymous 1982 album. Wade, Bonnie C. Music in Japan: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. The azumagoto or yamatogoto was called the wagon, the kin no koto was called the kin, and the sau no koto (sau being an older pronunciation of 箏) was called the sō or koto. It was named the taishōgoto after the Taishō period. The development of independent solo and chamber music genres…, The Japanese zither (koto), for example, can be tuned according to a number of fixed systems; nevertheless, its player produces many microtonal (using intervals that differ from the equally spaced semitones of Western music) variations on these fixed pitches by manipulation of the strings. The azumagoto or yamatogoto was called the wagon, the kin no koto was called the kin, and the sau no koto (sau being an older pronunciation of 箏) was called the sō or koto. It is derived from the Chinese zheng and se, and similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum and ajaeng, the Vietnamese đàn tranh, the Sundanese kacapi and the Kazakhstan jetigen. The other end of the koto is called the "dragon's tail" (竜尾, ryūbi); the string nut is called the "cloud horn" (雲角, unkaku). Kiri is also important to Japan because it is the Imperial family crest for the Empress. En pratique : Quelles sources sont attendues ? Kimio Eto est un interprète moderne. Environ 1,80 m de longueur et 25 cm de largeur. Reiko Obata, founder of East West Jazz, was the first to perform and record an album of jazz standards featuring the koto. Oxford: Oxford Univ., 2005. The koto is related to the Chinese zheng and se and the Korean kayagŭm and kǒmungo. Yatsuhashi changed the tsukushi goto tunings, which were based on gagaku ways of tuning; and with this change, a new style of koto was born. In the past the measurement ranged from 152 to 194 centimeters. When a small bridge is unavailable for some very low notes, some players may, as an emergency measure, use a bridge upside down. Thus the top part is called the "dragon's shell" (竜甲 ryūkō), while the bottom part is called the "dragon's stomach" (竜腹 ryūfuku). The makura ito, the silk thread used in the instrument, is a pivotal part of its construction. (This etymology is missing or incomplete.

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