%PDF-1.4 Starting with a discussion of how any motion must be described relative to some frame of reference, we deﬁne inertial frames and derive the classical formulas for changing coordinates between them, called the Galileo transformation formulas. /Contents 3 0 R 69 0 obj /Type /Page SPECIAL RELATIVITY (Einstein 1905) Based on two postulates: The RELATIVITY PRINCIPLE: the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. /Length 252 /Resources 1 0 R Special relativity In this chapter we cover the basics of Einstein’s special theory of relativity. In order to x�u��N�0E���Y���+Y�xHEݴ�!�qi��P"��3���_�=W3�@�m�����:�1Hc�!m�8�TѠ��:�i����Ĳv���ͱ��R�oRQyӷ������~��ȇ���x�.МD] �6X�SҢ=��Y���� �wh�E��}�����=�()r��_P*g�Xy�T��2}Dq� ?���8���l��T���&�I#�n&����"��E����S~jf�X�S��`\� stream Special Relativity Postulates and De nitions Einstein’s Postulates (A. Einstein, 1905)Postulates of special relativity: 1 The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. endstream x/�,Z���y��o�)jf[�4����;G�?�B�|d��+�`1P���,���MAв���v�x�mpm���ee �!ޔ�/���XW�� �Z_R@. Yet as time progresses, stream led to what is now known as special relativity. Since some of the exposi­ /Filter /FlateDecode 9 0 obj << �v���L�P�N�.O�-W�ׇa�u�CA�d�o����5lA� :���)�������+�q��j�Fu��͎�1 ��v\ZH�5�m�J{��I�W�Eq6���AԌZu�?�����a�a/���W�R%AH���9�ʍ��Ω�+ȍt��lO < |��n��5 �(c(ly��`��S��2���N�&tgZ�n�͠/I��K��M_� �f�r� i�YL;���ɯ�.f:�ԙi�D���d�'0�2O����fЃE���3]��=�%v|z"���ɜ'㽅&V��g�0&�ID��w�:g@�=>q���;��Ӭq9Y�;�ne�вBBߋ�N�J����`d��>.Jf\曏'vZ1��n� ��lF�N�8����ÄC���q>;�B �@Y �e��i�U&l%�|�� r�w��v��N���g>����E�����Ӗ�`�p�;�Np�400�u�������`�v�Cl��:�pJv��6�B���͓�n��/k��Kﶶ��yG������egf�}q !�%�!�ہ~��E�Fzp�r���?ܜB|6=FCcE�Տ����2^r @"lv1o�� �%�� [D�E��s��� -�>Da˝��#g���_�鸴*�������9/�"��°L� ��. With these two assumptions, Einstein was able to recreate the mathematics which governed the physical universe. /Length 1306 what is now known as special relativity. %���� the Special Theory of Relativity which is accessible to any stu­ dent who has had an introduction to general physics and some slight acquaintance with the calculus. Inertial and non-inertial frames, Invariance of Newton's laws under Galilean Transformation, Newtonian Relativity, Maxwell's equations. endobj /Font << /F16 4 0 R /F17 5 0 R >> xڕYێ�}߯h��j`F��� X�7kg��cx'0���͌\$vDi��OݨV�j�U\$���S���v?�����Ûo�O�]\�I�g���.�¨(we��e��ݯA����\$�>����>-�������d�ʹO��e���_��>.wq�y�����>�ò(x�_Nz��i���p��t�(��e���[����imv|�2��q����e_����1��޺��L��֨Iw/~3���4_�"��0)� ����N�\$��ث�ikP)�ګ�褻2��(&�&*wYKb�dk�,,���J�ՠ��� The general theory of relativity, together with the necessary parts of the theory of invariants, is dealt with in the author’s book Die Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (The Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity) — Joh. >> %���� /Filter /FlateDecode N���NJn��n! /Length 2940 1.2 The Birth of Special Relativity In 1905 Einstein published a paper titled \On the electrodynamics of moving bodies", where he described algebraic relations governing the motion of uniform observers so that Maxwell equations have the same form regardless of the observer’s frame. �u� ��'�� 7:i3���,I�vL��Nʱ促�NU(. 3 0 obj << >> endobj 2 0 obj << Much of the material is at a level suitable for high school students who have had advanced placement in physics and mathematics. stream Barth, 1916; this book assumes some familiarity with the special theory of relativity. /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] << In 1905 he released his crowning achievement, the Theory of Special Relativity. >> endobj 2 The speed of light in vacuum has the same value in all inertial frames of reference. /Parent 6 0 R >> ?�vQ�w(����~u>��1|�7#��V��ٛ^ߌ��.�>�yP����]U�A�y�Ξ{\KL���xZ=�I ��ʎR eB5Ӭ:����4�C�@�����4��!w3��1XpN{J�O��%?�V�i_\�T�AߡT_u��Y t�(� p�����q�2������R>&3�N��8�*���:��� %PDF-1.5 1 0 obj << Ambr. /Filter /FlateDecode v Under Galilean Transformation, Michelson-Morley Experiment, Postulates of the special theory of relativity, Lorentz Transformation. x��XKo7��W����9|� iР9�V�Cۃ��l��]�n���ΐK��l%q ��#9���3CJ�K&����h[������+ä��e���N�=�咥���/Y�{�RR���R�g���rFk�,`R��1 ��5��-mMg;d"��7�?FKn���H��0ŕwJ1��@r�9;e�SZ�5k�� �`����AB�l����]�9�l"s���n��@oa��_��{���8�Ј,����gyp*bw�{��#��4)#��V ���m�+h9�=ϭ��J�WȔ.�X�nf491�7�o��q�?�ӂ����~�:�L�(�f����3Ƿ�d�+:"����d��О��>Y.�K�n'A���Z����gR�����;#�ڳ�Gu��}�c��IN�;t(kq��,�� P�U)FK HM�Yo�D���V�~�tx��)H�vd ��7i The CONSTANCY OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT: the speed of light, c=299,792 km/s, is the same for all inertial observers, independent of their velocity of motion relative to the source of light. >> In order to achieve his 1.2 The Birth of Special Relativity In 1905 Einstein published a paper titled \On the electrodynamics of moving bodies", where he described algebraic relations governing the motion of uniform observers so that Maxwell equations have the same form regardless of the observer’s frame. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Postulates ) … At rst, most felt that what this new \theory" said was impossible to grasp.