The performance of each K-anonymity's iteration is measured to decide the feasibility of data relocation, where data rows are changed into small groups of tuples. This will allow all the cloud-based services to stay robust and generate minimal overhead when optimizing their objectives and complying their SLA/budget requirements. Our experimental results show that our environment is resilient against attacks with less than 7% in overhead time. The Latest Paradigm. Since the early instantiations and implementations of both technologies, it has become apparent that their convergence could lead to a range of multiplicative benefits. When people talk about the cloud-computing paradigm, they often have different purposes in mind. (2010), N. Kho, Content in the cloud. Running one’s computing processes in someone else’s physical infrastructure [16]. An industry that is based on collecting information, and then analyzing it to provide subscribers with accurate decisions as a service. However, data sharing prompted various security threats and concerns that have been imposed via ever-escalating phishing attacks using advanced deception. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Syst. 825–830, J. Geelan, Twenty one experts define cloud computing. Elastic autoscaling in the cloud has been an increasingly important research topic since the emergence of cloud computing paradigm. We have not, however, changed the operation of the image processing application, as it requires more processing power than would be available in edge nodes. Below are 3 different computing models, in context of cloud computing. [13], there were over 22 different definitions in 2008 alone. Yet, the protection and truthfulness potency of this generalized technique is limited to a tiny output space, and often leads to unacceptable utility loss in cases of strict privacy requirements. The research and scientific community will use the cloud to solve complex problems; Cloud Computing will unleash the productivity and innovation in all scientific fields. W. Voorsluys, J. Broberg, and R. Buyya, Introduction to Cloud Computing, in Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms, ed. The computer paradigm is known as Cloud computing, where the huge systems pool are connected in networks that are public or private, to give dynamically scalable application infrastructure, storage of file and data. McCann, in Cyber-Physical Systems, 2017. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 1. “Cloud Computing is an approach to computing that leverages the efficient pooling of an on-demand, self-managed, virtual infrastructure” [VMware’s definition] [20]. IEEE Computer Society, E. Mancini, M. Rak, U. Villano, PerfCloud: GRID services for performance-oriented development of cloud computing applications”, in Proceedings 18th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE 09). Therefore, it is widely accepted that cyber resilient techniques are the most promising solutions to mitigate cyberattacks and change the game to advantage the defender over the attacker. Admittedly, it will not be easy to accept an emerging new business-driven model but the new paradigm offers revolutionary processes. For the cloud computing paradigm to be fully adopted and effectively used, it is critical that the security mechanisms are robust and resilient to malicious faults and attacks. We believe such hybrid approaches will be essential to allow smart city CPS applications to both scale and be maintainable and we should start considering these problems when designing development environments for them. This model identifies three major market segments (and service offerings) for cloud computing: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Finally, in the future Internet providers will start pushing for laws to protect the scarce Internet bandwidth and the notion of the “Metered Internet” will become the norm. Grid Computing Ripal Ranpara Diversity is used to avoid the software monoculture problem where one attack vector can successfully attack many instances of the same software module. 42(8), 106–108 (2009). Applications in smart devices will use the cloud to crunch huge data sets and exploit business analytics to provide faster and smarter decisions. E. Griffor, in Handbook of System Safety and Security, 2017. Shuffling is needed to randomly change the execution environment and is achieved by “hot” shuffling of multiple functionally equivalent, behaviorally different software versions (code implementation) at runtime (e.g., the software task can have multiple versions where each version can be a different algorithm implemented in different programming language running on different computing systems). Since then, cloud computing has been evolved from static clients to dynamic ones and from software to services. Wenhong Tian, Yong Zhao, in Optimized Cloud Resource Management and Scheduling, 2015. Thus, where to place a particular module of computation depends on the requirements for it, e.g., in terms of timeliness, redundancy, and accuracy. cloud computing represents one of the most significant paradigms shifts in information technology (IT) history, due to an extension of sharing an application-hosting provider that has been around for many years, and was common in highly regulated vertical industries like … Meanwhile, several open source cloud platforms, such as Hadoop [13], OpenNebula [14], Eucalyptus [15], Nimbus [16], and OpenStack [17], became available because of the fast growth within their respective communities. Since leak detection is time-sensitive, as we explained before, this could be disastrous. For example, new parallel computation models (i.e., map reduce) that are more efficient and target different types of applications will be created, new standards, interfaces, and software stacks will be created to support applications’ interoperability and data, workloads, and applications’ portability. Most IoT applications entail a large number of heterogeneous geographically distributed sensors. N. Kefalakis, ... J. Soldatos, in Internet of Things, 2016. Security and legislation are two of the challenging aspects of cloud computing that are beyond the technical sphere. Caesar Wu, Rajkumar Buyya, in Cloud Data Centers and Cost Modeling, 2015. J. New additions and refinements to the cloud models, characteristics, and technologies occur on a daily basis. The concept of Cloud Computing came into existence in the year 1950 with implementation of mainframe computers, accessible via thin/static clients. For the, A Design Methodology for Developing Resilient Cloud Services, Rajkumar Buyya, ... S. Thamarai Selvi, in, Cloud Computing Uncovered: A Research Landscape, Open source semantic web infrastructure for managing IoT resources in the Cloud, Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are nowadays two of the most prominent and popular ICT paradigms that are expected to shape the next era of computing. According to the research of Luis M. Vaquero et al. Shuffling is needed to randomly change the execution environment and is achieved by “hot” shuffling of multiple functionally equivalent, behaviorally different software versions at runtime. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah1. • Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable and reliable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal consumer management effort or service provider interaction. Redundancy is used to tolerate attacks if any redundant version or resource is compromised. The primary purpose of this book is to capture the state-of-the-art in Cloud Computing technologies and applications. The spectrum of resource investment now ranges from dedicated private resources, a hybrid resource pool combining local resource and remote clouds, and a full outsourcing of computing and storage to public clouds. EContent Mag. This and other advantages also have downsides that are diverse in nature. The following diagram explains the evolution of cloud computing: Benefits. It is envisioned that new technological developments and the increased familiarity with cloud computing delivery models will lead to the establishment of a global market for trading computing utilities. Dropbox, Facebook, Gmail. False. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Inter-cooperative Collective Intelligence: Techniques and Applications Several new computing paradigms, including Transparent Computing, Mobile Edge Computing, Fog Computing, and Cloudlet, have emerged to leverage the distributed resources at network edge to provide timely and context-aware services. By that, the chapter provides a complete overview on the Cloud Computing and paves the way for further research in this area. Moving Target Defense (MTD) has been proposed as a mechanism to make it extremely difficult for an attacker to exploit existing vulnerabilities by varying the attack surface of the execution environment. The chapter also addresses the customer-related aspects such as the Service Level Agreement, service cost, and security issues. Cloud Computing reduces both organizations’ capital and operational expenses. In its early stages, the Cloud was used to express the empty space between the end user and the provider. Centralized or monolithic computing: The computing done using a single computer, which is not part of any network is referred to as monolithic computing.In this type of computing the system makes use of only those resources which are in its access.Since there is only one user who is using a system at a given instance of time therefore the … Moreover, the fact that most organizations have invested or are currently investing in cloud technologies and solutions, is sufficient to prove that this technology is not dying soon, at least until organizations harvest their return of investment on Cloud Computing. We anticipate that this book chapter will provide researchers and practitioners an appropriate foundation to start their journey behind the cloud. It became feasible to share confidential data records through CC for further analysis and mining. Many of these properties can be understood via well-known ecological models [16], which provide a theoretical basis for the occurrence of self-awareness and self-adaptivity, resulting from the interactions among the individuals and their environment, leading to complex and emergent behaviors [17] (e.g., evolution driven by natural selection). low cost - customers are only billed for resources used. The most widely cited definition is, however, the one is published by the US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standard and Technology or NIST [21], which we will discuss later in the chapter. Some of the leading concepts which this book covers are Mobile Computational Offloading (MCO) and Cloud Assisted Mobile Augmentation (CMA) which helps to overcome the limitations (battery life and computational … Ans: B. Cloud computing provides a much larger room for the trade-off between performance and cost. To surmount this limitation, we propose a hybrid K-anonymity data relocation algorithm. A. (Groningen, The Netherlands, 2009), 201–206 (2009), D. Kondo, B. Javadi, P. Malecot, F. Cappello, amd D. Anderson, Cost-benefit analysis of cloud computing versus desktop grids, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (IPDPS 09), IEEE Computer Society Washington, 2009, pp. In this network we are running three different services, affecting different subsets of the nodes. In this setting, we can imagine standard nodes delivering high-resolution sensor data for multiple parameters such that collecting all the available data in a cloud computing paradigm would be infeasible and cause congestion in the network. The book will also aim to identify potential research directions and technologies that will facilitate creation a global market-place of cloud computing services supporting scientific, industrial, business, and consumer applications. The advantage is an easy backup. In this chapter, we present an end-to-end approach that addresses the integration of Swift, an SWFMS that has a broad application in grids and supercomputers, with the OpenNebula cloud platform. A larger cloud network can be built as either a layer 3 or layer 4 network. IEEE Spectrum, A. Khajeh-Hosseini, I. Sommerville, and I. Sriram, Research challenges for enterprise cloud computing, CoRR, abs/1001.3257, 2010. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. D. Armstrong, and K. Djemame, Towards quality of service in the cloud, in Proceedings of 25th UK Performance Engineering Workshop, (Leeds, 2009), Inter-cooperative Collective Intelligence: Techniques and Applications, Department of Scientific Computing, Faculty of Computer and Information Science, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Informatics and Computer Science, These tuples, being indistinguishable to each other, create anonymizations of finer granularity with an assured privacy standard. Today, cloud computing has quickly become a buzzword not only in the IT industry but also in other sectors, such as banking, finance, education, health, utilities, airlines, retail, real estate, and telecom. Cloud Computing has recently emerged as a compelling paradigm for managing and delivering services over the internet. The cloud takes care of scaling out and in and load balancing. However, a clear and neat definition of these computing paradigms and their correlation is hard to find in the literature. Fortunately, the plethora of existing reference models, architectures, and frameworks, as well as those underdevelopment are a sign that Cloud Computing is on its way to maturity. For example, someone may think of how common tasks can be factored as standalone components to reduce data traffic. Undoubtedly, stability and sustainability are among the most desirable attributes of cloud computing. These are distributed systems and its peripherals, virtualization, web 2.0, service orientation, and utility computing. True B. As a result, they need to handle numerous sensor streams, and could therefore directly benefit from the immense distributed storage capacities of cloud computing infrastructures. Scientific workflow systems have been formerly applied over a number of execution environments, such as workstations, clusters/grids, and supercomputers. The benefit of running scientific workflows on top of a cloud can be multifold: The scale of scientific problems that can be addressed using scientific workflows can be greatly increased compared to cluster/grid environments, which was previously upbounded by the size of a dedicated resource pool with limited resource sharing extension in the form of virtual organizations. Social network data is also tremendous: each month, the Facebook community creates more than 30 billion pieces of content ranging from web links, news, stories, blog posts, and notes to videos and photos [7]. With bare-metal physical servers, it is not easy to change the application deployedand the underlying supporting platform. Furthermore, this approach is designed for L-diversity, and (a, K) anonymity. Actually, many e-commerce activities have been utilizing many cloud applications one way or the other. Parallel Distrib. We have implemented the applications on an IBM blade server with four blades, where each blade has 24 cores and can run several virtual machines. Cloud can be used for storage of files. In an earlier paper [18], we identified various challenges associated with migrating and adapting an SWFMS in the cloud. This vision is what inspires the Cloud Computing Reference Model. The bottom line is that the right definition will lay out a solid foundation for us to establish an adequate cost model and framework. The benefits that organizations can obtain by adopting Cloud Computing are evident. Natural ecosystems are considered to be robust, efficient, and scalable systems that are capable to cope with dynamics and uncertainty, possessing several properties that may be useful in cloud autoscaling systems. 24–44, W. Voorsluys, J. Broberg, S. Venugopal, and R. Buyya, Cost of virtual machine live migration in clouds: A performance evaluation, in Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing, (Beijing, 2009), pp. Cloud-native computing is a new paradigm for computing that extends the familiar benefits of the cloud to all of IT. Not logged in pp 39-67 | We also present our experimental results and evaluation of the RCS design methodology. People often ask, “What does cloud computing really mean?” The common answer is again very tactful: “It is really dependent on what you mean.” The answer actually indicates the subjectiveness of the cloud definition and the broad spectrum of meanings for the cloud. On the right hand side we see a more balanced distribution, where we have eliminated some of the congestion by doing the computations for the leak detection application within the network. Application deployment can be made flexible and convenient. Cloud computing is a style of computing where computing resources are easy to obtain and access, simple to use, cheap, and just work [19]. These issues are compounded when we consider the scalability of CPS to a city scale. The amount of data created in the world is growing explosively. Cloud computing is no-longer a novel paradigm, but instead an increasingly robust and established technology, yet new developments continue to emerge in this area. by R. Buyya, J. Broberg, A.Goscinski (New York: Wiley, 2011), pp. We advocate that the well-established ecological principles, theories, and models can provide rich source of inspiration to spontaneously improve the stability and sustainability of the cloud as a whole. The first paradigm shift we see as a result of a company shifting to a Cloud-based solution is the way the solution is implemented. Throughout the book, we explore different definitions, interpretations, and implementations of this idea. Cloud computing not only provides the potential to solve larger-scale scientific problems, but also presents the opportunity to improve the performance/cost ratio. In the future, private clouds are expected to fade, while public and hybrid clouds will continue to be more popular. ), we can shift the attack surface and, consequently, evade attacks. False. However, with virtualization technology in a cloud platform, different application environments can either be preloaded in VM images or deployed dynamically onto VM instances. This area of study is called market-oriented cloud computing, where the term market-oriented further stresses the fact that cloud computing services are traded as utilities.

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