The system of counting numbers uses the base ten. Pinhole camera wave optics Geometric 12 Fermat‘s Principle Light propagating between two points follows a path, or paths, for which the time taken is an extremum (minimum) Ignoring the wave nature of light Basic theory for optical instruments Geometrical Optics – Revision Geometric 13 This lecture note explains following topics: Basics of optics, Laws of Reflection and Refraction, Reflection from spherical mirrors, Velocity of image, Refraction at Plane Surfaces, Prism Theory, Defects of images, Refraction from … Optics basics Lens approximations and equations The main features of most optical systems can be calculated with a few parameters, provided that some approximation is accepted. The paraxial approximation requires that only rays entering the optical system at small angles with respect to … Basic Optics System About the Experiments 8 6. FEATURES OF A WAVE 3 1.1.3 Evidence for light as a stream of particles One of the earliest proponents of the idea that light was a stream of particles was Isaac Newton − Ray optics is based on a very rough approximation (λ→0, no wave phenomena), but we can explain almost all daily life experiences He described optics as a “Paradise for Mathematicians” and meant principally to give a new perspective to the topic of geometrical optics. 7. 1.2. These are designed for shooting closer ranges so the eye will focus quickly on the illuminated reticle for a faster shot. fiber-optics, optics and related fields in photonics, it is necessary to understand the basics of number notation and measure ment units. Fundamental work in diffraction by Snellius (1591-1626), in addition to the insights and Lectures On Geometrical Optics. At first we decide what lens to use and calculate focal length or other basic features. − Ray optics or geometrical optics is the simplest theory for doing optics. These deviate rays and we can condense rays or rotate images. They are not going to give you the precision that will be required at longer ranges. − In this theory, propagation of light in various optical media can be described by simple geometrical rules. Optics 101 Basic Optical Terms. Convex and Concave Lenses (page 19): Use ray tracing to determine the focal lengths of lenses. Some are illuminated by fiber optics, tritium, or electronics. 2 OPTIX Module 1, Basic (Optics Basics - I) * Lastly, as preparation for this module, write down everything optics-related you remember from the optics unit in Intro … source. They work very well for what they were designed. Lens, mirrors and prisms are most basic optical elements. Hollow Lens (page 21): Use the hollow lens and water to explore how the prop- erties of a lens are related to its shape, its index of refraction, and the index of The scientific development of optics, specifically geometrical optics, evolved from the contributions of many. (2)((22))(2) Image sensorImage sensor ( Photo detector ) ( Photo detector ) Image sensor transfers light energy to electrical energy. 4 COMMONLY USED UNITS Centimeters = Millimeters = Micrometers = Micron = Millimicron = Nanometer = Angstrom = Inch = Millimeter = Furlong = 10-2 meter 10-3 meter 10-6 meter 10-6 meter 10-9 meter 10-9 meter 10-10 meter 25.4mm 0.03937in